High Level Science Products are observations, catalogs, or models that complement, or are derived from, MAST-supported missions. These include Hubble (HST), James Webb (JWST), TESS, PanSTARRS, Kepler/K2, GALEX, Swift, XMM, and others. HLSPs can include images, spectra, light curves, maps, source catalogs, or simulations. They can include observations from other telescopes, or data that have been processed in a way that differs from what's available in the originating archive. All HLSPs are public immediately with no proprietary periods. Use the filters below to discover HLSP. Search HLSP by coordinates or filenames on MAST Classic. Or, see all HLSPs in a simplified, searchable table.
Targeting Extremely Magnified Panchromatic Lensed Arcs and their Extended Star formation (TEMPLATES)
The TEMPLATES program is designed to obtain high signal-to-noise NIRSpec and MIRI IFU spectroscopy, with accompanying imaging, for 4 gravitationally lensed galaxies at 1<z<4. This program aims to spatially resolve the star formation in galaxies across the peak of cosmic star formation, in an extinction-robust manner. Lensing magnification pushes JWST to the highest spatial resolutions possible at these redshifts, to map the key spectral diagnostics of star formation and dust extinction: H-alpha, Pa-alpha, and 3.3um PAH within individual distant galaxies. The targets are among the brightest, best-characterized lensed systems known, and span a wide range of specific star formation rate, extinction, and luminosity. They have extensive ancillary datasets. The TEMPLATES science goals are: 1) demonstrate extinction-robust star formation rate diagnostics for distant galaxies; 2) determine the physical scales of star formation in distant galaxies, in an extinction-robust way; 3) measure specific star formation rates and compare the spatial distribution of the young and old stars; and 4) measure the physical conditions of star formation and their spatial variation.
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Early Release Observations (EROs) are a set of science products created to mark the end of commissioning and the beginning of science operations for JWST. Colloquially known as the "Webb First Images and Spectra", these products were intended to demonstrate to the global public that JWST is ready for science and is capable of producing spectacular results. The package was released on 12 July 2022, and included images and spectra of the galaxy cluster SMACS J0723.3-7327 and distant lensed galaxies, the interacting galaxy group Stephan's Quintet, NGC 3324 in the Carina star-forming complex, the Southern Ring planetary nebula NGC 3132, and the transiting hot Jupiter WASP-96 b.
Bootes I is a nearby, relatively bright ultrafaint dwarf galaxy. This dataset consists of two catalogs of sources in the line-of-sight to this ultrafaint galaxy, produced from deep, optical imaging in three fields, taken with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys, Wide Field Camera. The first catalog contains photometry for the sources while the second catalog contains astrometric measurements, providing relative proper motions for the brighter sources.
This page hosts synthetic deep survey images from the Illustris Project cosmological simulations of galaxy formation. By projecting a line of sight through a periodic volume, the team constructed realistic mock surveys which preserve the predicted geometry of the simulations. With the emergence of large hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation, the team can now create these mock galaxy surveys with detail down to the size scales and distances revealed by HST, and in the future, those JWST and WFIRST will reveal. The Illustris Project consists of hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation in a volume 106.5 Mpc across, with detail resolved down to sub-kpc scales. Using the Arepo code, Illustris applied galaxy physics consisting of cooling, star formation, gas recycling, metal enrichment, supermassive black hole growth, and gas heating by feedback from supernovae and black holes. By converting simulations like these into synthetic observations, the team interprets HST observations with complex models of galaxy assembly, plan ahead for future missions, and directly contrast valuable survey data with our theoretical understanding of the physics behind the formation of galaxies. Here, the team presents "mock ultra-deep fields", each 2.2 to 19 arcminutes across, in common wide filters used by HST and JWST, as well as in filters expected to be used widely by observers with the Nancy Grace Roman space telescope (formerly "WFIRST"). The team presents mock lightcones from both the original Illustris-1 simulation, as well as from the IllustrisTNG suite of simulations. For each image, the team also provides the simulation catalog from which they generated each image, enabling users to locate sources, link them to intrinsic simulation quantities, and conduct analyses across observation and theory space.
WISE-PS1-STRM is a neural network source classification and photometric redshift catalog extracted from a cross-match between the WISE All-Sky and PS1 3p DR2 source catalogs. The resulting catalog has 354,590,570 objects, significantly fewer than the parent PS1 catalog, but its combination of optical and infrared colors facilitate both better source classification and photometric redshift estimation. A neural network classified objects into galaxies, quasars, and stars, then another network estimated photometric redshifts for the galaxies. The star sample purity and quasar sample completeness measures improve substantially, and the resulting photo-z ’s are significantly more accurate in terms of statistical scatter and bias than those calculated from PS1 properties alone. See the README file and the primary reference paper for a detailed description of the catalog metadata.
The COS Legacy Spectroscopic SurveY (CLASSY) is a treasury survey that builds on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archive to construct the first high-quality, high-resolution far-ultraviolet (far-UV) spectral database of 45 nearby star-forming galaxies. The survey combines 177 orbits of archival observations with 135 new orbits (312 total orbits) of HST observations, or more than 600 total spectral images taken with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). The CLASSY Treasury sample contains 45 star-forming galaxies selected to span similar properties as seen at high redshift, with a large range of masses, metallicities, ionization parameters, and densities, but enhanced star formation rates. The CLASSY spectral atlas contains a suite of emission and absorption features that enable investigations of the massive stellar population properties, the physical properties of large-scale outflows that regulate star formation, and the chemical abundance patterns of the gas and stars. Further, CLASSY will improve the diagnostic power of the rest-frame UV lines for use by future JWST/ELT surveys, providing a long-lasting legacy to the astronomical community for decades to come.
The BlueTides Mock Image Catalogue is a catalogue of mock images of roughly 100,000 MUV= -22.5 to -19.6 mag galaxies from the BlueTides hydrodynamical simulation at z=7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. This includes mock images of these galaxies with the James Webb, Hubble, Roman, and Euclid Space Telescopes, as well as Subaru and VISTA, in a range of near- and mid-infrared filters. These images are created from the stellar particle distribution of BlueTides galaxies, as determined through the detailed hydrodynamics of the cosmological simulation. Each star particle in each galaxy is assigned an SED based on its age and metallicity, and nebular continuum, line emission, and dust attenuation are modelled. Fluxes are taken from a convolution of the SEDs with the various filter transmission curves. The images show the 6x6 or 10x10 kpc fields of view surrounding each galaxy, depending on the telescope. The images are binned onto a pixel scale of 0.5 times the native pixel scale of each instrument. These images are convolved with model PSFs, to produce realistic estimates of what true images with these telescopes would look like, although non-convolved images are also available. The catalogue images have no noise, so that they can be adapted for specific use cases. Software for adding noise is available on GitHub, alongside software for accessing and visualising the catalogue data.
A Northern Dark Spot discovered in 2018 (NDS-2018) was detected in the annual observations of Neptune from the OPAL program. Once 2019 OPAL data showed that the spot was drifting very close to the equator, additional observing programs were conducted to understand how the dark vortex was changing on shorter time scales, and to capture finer detail by taking a higher number of blue (F467M) images in each HST orbit. Dark spots require high spatial resolution at blue wavelengths to be observed, so no ground-based observatory has yet published a detection of one. Only the Voyager 2 spacecraft and Hubble have made published observations of dark vortices on Neptune. Wong et al. (2022) reviews the overall collection of HST imaging data from the WFC3/UVIS instrument. These have been processed to correct for geometric distortion, cosmic ray hits, and fringing (at narrowband red wavelengths), then navigated to define latitude, longitude, emission, and incidence angles for each pixel. Frames have been corrected for loss of contrast due to scattered light from the wings of the point spread function, and limb darkening and large-scale zonal brightness variation were removed by constructing difference images. The team prepared stacks of coadded difference images to maximize PSF sampling and to reduce noise from pixel instability.
Using anticipated characteristics of the Roman Space Telescope Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) survey, the team has constructed mock catalogs of expected resolved lensing systems and strongly lensed Type Ia and core-collapse (CC) SN light curves, including microlensing effects. The data products include mock catalogs for four Roman SN Ia survey variants and the High Latitude Survey (HLS), as well as 2.4 million simulated light curves (600k for each of 4 SN classes: Ia, Ibc, IIn, IIP) based on the Hounsell et al. 2018 "Allz" strategy. These products were used to predict that Roman will find ~11 lensed SNIa and ~20 CCSN for the fiducial SN Ia surveys, with a time delay precision of ~2 and 3 days (measured with the SNTD package: https://sntd.readthedocs.io/), respectively. The predicted parameters were then used to construct Fisher matrices, also included, and derive projected constraints on cosmological parameters for each SN Ia survey strategy.
A number of studies based on data collected by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) GO-13297 program “HST Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters: Shedding UV Light on Their Populations and Formation" have investigated the photometric properties of a large sample of Galactic globular clusters and revolutionized our understanding of their stellar populations. In this project, the authors expand previous studies by focusing on the stellar clusters’ internal kinematics. The authors computed proper motions for stars in 56 globular clusters and one open cluster by combining the GO-13297 images with archival HST data. The astro-photometric catalogs released with this paper represent the most complete and homogeneous collection of proper motions of stars in the cores of stellar clusters to date, and expand the information provided by the current (and future) Gaia data releases to much fainter stars and into the crowded central regions. At the dawn of a new era in astronomy with the first light of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the legacy that these proper-motion catalogs offer is further enhanced, since they can serve as an important astrometric benchmark for JWST-based data reduction and tools.
TESS-EBs is a catalog containing locations, ephemerides and basic light curve properties for eclipsing binary stars found in data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). Prša et al. 2022 discuss the selection criteria for eclipsing binary candidates, the detection of hither-to unknown eclipsing systems, the determination of ephemerides, the validation and triage process, and the derivation of heuristic estimates for the ephemerides. They also present statistical properties of the sample and qualitative estimates of completeness. Instead of keeping to the widely used discrete classes, the authors propose a binary star morphology classification based on a dimensionality reduction algorithm. The catalog will continue to be updated with new sectors of data as they become available. The deliverables presented here are curated by the TESS Eclipsing Binary Working Group, an open group of professional and citizen scientists.
Ivan Hubeny has updated the TLusty OB NLTE model SED grids of Lanz & Hubeny (2003) and Lanz & Hubeny (2007) using a more complete hydrogen atom to produce more realistic IR flux predictions. In particular, the new NLTE spectra have a much better description of line confluences and of the contribution to the opacity in very high series members. In addition, there are improvements in the treatment of the hydrogen and He II continua from high levels, inclusion of more scattering opacity sources, and updates to the physics of level dissolution. Each model has 29957 points at constant spectral resolution of R=5000 and a micro-turbulent velocity of 2 km/s. The Asplund et al. (2009) element abundances are used for computing the spectra. The grid contains 1082 model pairs of spectra and continua and covers effective temperature Teff in the range 15,000-55,000 K and surface gravity log(g) between 1.75 and 4.75, with steps of 0.25. The steps in Teff are 1,000 K between 15,000 and 29,000 K and 2,500 K between 30,000 and 55,000 K. As Teff rises, more of the unstable lower surface gravities are omitted. There are five metallicity values log Z=[M/H] of 0.301, 0.000, -0.301, -0.70, and -1.00, which correspond to Z=2, 1, 0.5, 0.2, and 0.1, where Z=1 is the solar value. The continuum spectra have a coarser wavelength scale than the spectra. Both ASCII text and FITS versions of the SEDs are provided. The wavelengths are in Angstroms measured in vacuum, while the fluxes are in erg/cm**2/s/Angstrom.
SuperBoRG is an archival project that primarily aims to search for luminous galaxies and quasars at redshifts z > 7. SuperBoRG compiled HST’s multi-band imaging data previously taken in parallel observations designed for extragalactic science and reduced all data in a consistent manner. From both pure-parallel and coordinated-parallels programs with WFC3 in the past decade, it collected 316 independent sightlines with multi-band imaging data at moderate depth. The total area reaches ~0.41 deg^2, making it one of the largest area, extragalactic datasets. All data were reduced with a new pipeline with a few updates from the previous BoRG HLSP data release, including sophisticated sky subtraction and PSF matching. This data release includes imaging data and catalogs.
The TESS Full Frame Images (FFIs) present a wealth of opportunity for discovery. The team aims to make this opportunity accessible to the entire community by providing the FFI light curves of all stars brighter than 16 mag from the primary mission (Years 1 and 2; Sectors 1–26) for public release. This includes a total of over 150 million light curves, making it the largest set of TESS light curves released to date. The light curves were constructed using the eleanor python library (Feinstein et al., 2019) in an offline, parallel implementation on the Discover supercomputer at the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS). The eleanor-lite format in which they are stored allows for a relatively low memory requirement per light curve, providing for bulk storage and fast transfer of the light curves. This format will facilitate large-scale analysis of the light curves, such as algorithmic and machine learning approaches to finding signals of interest to the user.
The 3D-Drift And SHift (3D-DASH) program is a Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 F160W imaging and G141 grism survey of the equatorial COSMOS field. 3D-DASH is the widest HST/WFC3 imaging survey in the F160W filter to date, subsuming the COSMOS-DASH pilot survey. 3D-DASH extends the legacy of HST near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy to degree-scale swaths of the sky, enabling the identification and study of distant galaxies (z > 2) that are rare or in short-lived phases of galaxy evolution at rest-frame optical wavelengths.